Before planting, the harvesting path and planting rows are mechanically consolidated by running an excavator 2 to 3 times over them. In Malaysia, virgin lowland peat areas are often flooded and swampy. [addw2p name=”problemSoils”] Gondang. In Peninsular Malaysia, they are found in the coastal areas of the east and west Soils are considered to include all naturally occurring loose or soft deposits overlying the solid bedrock. window.mc4wp.listeners.push({ Deep acid peat provides an interesting nutritional complexes to agronomists. } Veloo,R.,Paramananthan,S., van Ranst,E. Most of researchers conducted investigations on the dynamic loading of soft soils such as sand and clay, but only a few had discovered the behaviour of peat in terms of static and dynamic loadings. Soc. Although good response to liming has been obtained the effect is unlikely to be due to Ca. Thus, the amount of CO2 emission when the peat soil is drained is lower for one that has sapric instead of fibric material. SUMMARY Peatland in Malaysia covers approximately 2.76 million hectares of which 796,782 hectares are in Peninsular Malaysia (Law and Selvadurai, 1968), 200,600 hectares in Sabah (Acres et al, 1975) and 1,765,547 hectares in Sarawak (Melling, 1999). Upon drainage (Table 2), liming and decline in C:N ratio and higher N availability. Peat swamp forests are typically surrounded by lowland rain forests on better-drained soils, and by brackish or salt-water mangrove forests near the coast. Apart from this, peat provides an imbalance nutritional medium for plant growth (Table 1). When these peat soils are drained, the wood fragments do not decompose easily to add on to CO2 emission. The mineralisation of peat also releases P to the system, which contains low Al and Fe for fixation. This is a major problem for infrastructure development as the geotechnical properties of peat soils are lower than mineral soils. (1987). Draining the peat swamp increases acidity as shown in Table 2. ABOUT MPOC  Since peat soils are organic in nature, the bulk density is also low. Alluvial soils are also known as fluvial soils or alluvium. 2013 supplement to the 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories: Wetlands. Palm Oil Trade Fair And Seminar (POTS) 2020 Announcement, Palm Oil Trade Fair and Seminar (POTS) 2020 – Announcement. Masing, who is also the Minister of Infrastructure and Port Development, said more than 60 per cent of Sarawak’s flat land consists of peat soil. (2007). Therefore, this part of the lecture note is extensively drawn from a paper written by Gurmit et al. Peat covers approximately 8" of the land or about 3 million ha. In order to rectify these problems, the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) in collaboration with This research investigated the compressibility of natural peat soil and peat soil improved with polyurethane foam. As such, mapping virgin peat soil areas is not liked by many soil surveyors. They were left untouched and not used for farming. Peatlands are used as an alternative option for future development due to lack of suitable lands and expensive cost. Sandy soil within peat areas is proven to perform worse than at least 3 types of peat soil in this case (i.e. 46100 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Much of the peat areas were marked as  swamp areas for this reason. New evidence obtained from detailed soil surveys, mapping and classification shows that the majority of Malaysian lowland peat soils are mainly sapric and with many of them containing wood. Yew, F.K., Sundram, K., Yusof, B. Since peat soils are organic in nature, the bulk density is also low. Large areas of these forests are being logged at high rates. SITEMAP Proper soil and water management of oil palms on deep peat has resulted in FFB production closely mirroring that on good mineral soils (Figure 3). Field investigation: For laboratory investigation, peat soil was sampled from the Klang, Peninsular, West Malaysia. Therefore, only low P rates of 0.5 to 1.0 kg phosphate rock palm-1 yr-1 are generally provided. Tropical peats are, however, different from temperate peat as wood is often present. In some parts of Malaysia, particularly Sarawak, there is not much option as to what type of land to use as the state has large areas of its land mass as peat. It is most probably a result of improved mineralisation rate, increased soil pH and a better cationic-anionic balance in the plant system (Cheong and Ng, 1980). Tropical peat materials, just like temperate peat materials  can be differentiated based on the stage of decomposition.  There are 3 stages of decomposition, namel. Agus,F., Henson,I.E., Suhardjo,B.H., Harris,N., van Noordwijk,M., Killen,T.J. They are found in peatlands (also called bogs or mires). Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf, PhD, is a Senior Lecturer at Faculty of Science and Natural Resources, University Malaysia, Sabah.His field of interest is environmental soil science. Temperate peat deposits are also known to be derived from bryophytes and small shrubs while tropical peat deposits are derived from various tree species with root penetration up to several meters  (Wust, 2003). While high water tables are responsible for preventing the organic material from decaying, the flipside is that when these peat soils are drained, they are again exposed to oxygen. RSS, Leading the way in conservation opportunities and efforts, To promote the market expansion of Malaysian plam oil and its products by enhancing the image of palm oil and…, sapric  (very high stage of decomposition), hemic (moderate stage of decomposition) and, Cultivated tropical peat soils have lower CO2 emission than reported. Consequently, aeration is poor and bulk density is very low at less than 0.1 g cm-3. (2010). Thus, peat soils are also known as organic soils. (Editors).Proceedings of the International Symposium and Workshop on Tropical Peatland, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Peat swamps in Malaysia may store … listeners: [], Farming is a major economic activity which has been successfully carried out on peatland in Malaysia; starting with planting of vegetables and cash crops such as pineapples and tapioca or cassava during the second half  of the 20th century. This reduces the CO2 emission even further when the peat soils are drained. Oil palm has been grown on wet, organic peatlands for decades, but such cultivation has taken its toll on the land, leading to productivity loss and drainage. Due consideration should be given out to overdrain the area as this will result in rapid shrinkage of the peat and irreversible drying of the top layer, which adversely affects establishment and growth of oil palms. Compared with rocks, soils are softer in terms of strength and more compressible, thus giving more problems to engineering works as compared with rocks. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Tropical lowland peats: to conserve or develop them. EPA carried out a peer review of the emission factor for tropical peatlands drained for oil palm cultivation and the findings were reported in December 2014. In Malaysia as a whole, there are three groups of lowland soils considered as problem soils, namely the sandy soils (Beach ridge [bris] and tin-tailings), peat and acid-sulphate soils. Such emissions have an effect on climate change and this needs to be properly addressed. Table 1. 603 - 7806 4097 This research was conducted from November, 2007 to February, 2008. New information (Veloo et al., 2014 ) obtained from soil survey and soil classification research carried out in Sarawak, Malaysia is confirming that tropical peat soils are indeed different from temperate peat soils with many of the tropical peat soils containing wood materials in the soil solum. Oil palms are cultivated on peat on a large scale since the mid fifties. In the field, CO2 emissions on peatland cultivated with oil palm are found to be on the lower end. The Sarawak Tropical Peat Research Institute (STROPI) was founded in the year 2008. Nevertheless, the results in Table 1 pointed to the fact that the CO2 emissions should range between 40 to 95 tonnes ha-1year-1. In Malaysia, peat, add' sulfate soils, soil on sandy beach deposits, saline soils and soils on ultrabasic rocks are commonly referred to as problem soils. Table 1. Periodic flushing of the acidic and excessive storm water during the rainy season is also carried out. A high groundwater table management was designed to slow down peat decomposition, reduce CO 2 emission, minimize peat drying and protect the oil palm fronds against desiccation. The institute was initially established as the Tropical Peat Research Laboratory Unit (TPRL) under the mandate of the Sarawak government. A larger degree of breakdown quickly takes place in a soil with fibric materials when drained, resulting in higher CO2 emission. Moreover, it has low K, Cu, Zn and B and high acidity of pH less than 4.0 (Gourmit et al., 1987). Malaysian Palm Oil Wildlife Conservation Fund (MPOWCF). workshop on classification and management of peat in Malaysia. Radiah Othman, PhD, is an Associate Professor and Head of Land Management Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia. High natural moisture content, high compressibility, low bearing capacity and medium to low permeability is a problem and characteristic of a peat soil. Hard wood, for example,  is very recalcitrant and can take a long time to break down and emit CO2 during the process. In the Malaysia, a study on water-table management was carried out on shallow and deep peat at MPOB Research Station, Sessang, Sarawak. MALAYSIA Biogeosciences 9: 1053-1071. event : event, Thus, the majority of lowland peat soils in Malaysia are classified as Saprists under USDA Soil Taxonomy or as Histosols under FAO/UNESCO classification. RSPO. These soils are being actively studied No 2, Jalan 51A/223, Section 51A, are overlain with substantial formations of peat soils, almost unrivalled when compared to other parts of Malaysia. Thus, it is often doubted that this can be done since the factors of peat formation in temperate areas are different from that in tropical areas and the peat will be  different morpho-genetically (Paramanathan,2008; Yew et al., 2010). Draining peat soils releases carbon dioxide. As such, estimations of CO2 emissions are often extrapolated based on data  from temperate peat. Malaysia’s peatlands mainly consist of peat swamp forest, a critically endangered category of forested wetland characterised by deep layers of peat soil CO2 is emitted when carbon rich peat soils are disturbed for cultivation. Most oil palm roots are concentrated in the top 50 cm of the peat soil. This peat has unique characteristics, which makes it significantly different from other peat. Mal. Natural Resources and Environment Minister, Datuk Seri Dr Wan Junaidi Tuanku Jaafar said the use of tube wells in the country had been proven effective in dealing with peat soil fires which contributed significantly to the haze problem. Malaysia, comprising the regions of Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak, supports some of the most extensive tropical peatlands in the world. This emission is 4.4 times larger than the emission reported in temperate and boreal peat, which is 15,944 tonnes ha-1year-1 (Oleszczuk, 2008). To know the proper methods of ground improvement and to know the scale of improvement works, a proper soil investigation requires. (1987) which showed good FFB response to N in the first 4 years of harvests only (Table 3). They are formed from the disintegration and decomposition of rocks and also by decomposition of organic materials. The high water table and the soft nature of the soil make peat soils soggy and it is not easy to walk on an undrained peat soil without sinking down. Saprists have very highly decomposed peat materials as shown in Table 2. However, major problems were encountered especially on deep peat and it was not until the eighties that oil palms are successful grown on it. When peatland is drained for oil palm cultivation, break down of the peat materials releases CO2 into the atmosphere. The results in Table 1 show the opinions of the five  experts after their critical evaluations of the problems stated. There are 2.4 million hectares of peat in Malaysia, with 1.5 million hectares occurring in Sarawak alone. Sample chemical analysis of peat from Jalan Kebun Peat Research Station, West Selangor, Malaysia. The high water table and the soft nature of the soil  make peat soils soggy and it is not easy to walk on an undrained peat soil without sinking down. Trial pits were excavated to a depth of 1 m below the ground surface to measure ground water table and to obtain both undisturbed and disturbed soil samples below the ground water table. Land subsidence is a serious problem in Sibu Town with frequent refilling and repairing being carried out to reinstate structures, platforms and (2014), Classification of tropical lowland peats revisited: The case of Sarawak. 603 - 7806 2272 Peat soils in their natural state are wet with very high water table near to the soil surface. Proc. Hence, Upon drainage, peat will undergo irreversible drying and extensive subsidence of 3.6 cm yr-1. Estimation of GHG emissions from peat used for agriculture with special reference to oil palm. Peat is also deficient in Cu, Zn and B. Friends of the Earth.(2008). Oil Palm & The Environment 2010, 1,17-25. According to Huat (2004), there are 3 million hectares or 8% area in Malaysia covered with peat. IN Rieley,J.O., Banks,C.J., Radjagukguk,B. The low bulk density and subsidence earlier present obstacles to road construction and planting. It was identified as a one of a major group of soil found in Malaysia. For example, Agus et al., (2013) found that the emission from peat oxidation under oil palm cultivation was 43 t CO2 ha-1year-1. Spent garnet and sand were used as fillers. The problems with deep peat lie in its physical and chemical characteristics. (2014). Excessive P application can leads to lower yield and Cu imbalance (Cheong and Ng, 1977). Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat. There are diverse opinions on the suitability of peat soils for general agricultural use Coulter (1957) at one extreme, suggested that peat in peninsular Malaysia should be disposed of as rapidly as possible by removal, burning or deep drainage with the ultimate aim of using the underlying mineral subsoil for growing wet rice. Rasau, Dengkil, Selangor Ninth Regional Congress on Geology, Mineral and Energy Resources of Southeast Asia (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) As such  sapric, hemic and fibric peat may also have the following wood fragments in the soil solum:-, Photo 1: Deep peat soil in Sarawak, Malaysia without wood.Â, Photo 2: Peat soil in Sarawak, Malaysia with  decomposing wood .Â, Photo 3: Peat soil in Sarawak, Malaysia with  undecomposed wood.Â. As such, mapping virgin peat soil areas is not liked by many soil surveyors. Hooijer,A.,Page,S.,Jauhiainen,W.A.,Lee,X.X.,Idris,A.,Anshari,G.(2012). (2008). ARCHIVE Oil palms are cultivated on peat on a large scale since the mid fifties. RSPO manual on best management practices for existing oil palm cultivation on peat,pp214. This has been a consequence of the general lack of information and experience with tropical peat. })(); Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC) peat subsidence (Dawson et al., 2010). } (2014). Jour. Bearing this in mind, United Plantations Berhad (UPB) has developed various novel methods to alleviate the problems and allow successful cultivation of oil palms on deep peat. CONTACT US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). Similarly, Melling et al.,(2007) found an emission of 41 t CO2 ha-1year-1 for young mature oil palm area, with root respiration included. Knowledge about the soils on which fertilizers are to be applied is important for better fertilizer management and use efficiency. Field and main roads are now created using spoils from roadside drains, levelled and compacted by bulldozer and then lined with laterite and mining ballasts. on: function (event, callback) { Wust,R.A.J., Bustin,R.M., Lavkulich,L.M.(2003). Peat soils are formed from partially decomposed plant material under anaerobic water saturated conditions. Malaysia, Malaysia) Peat soils impose special problems in Geotechnical Engineering design as well as Civil Engineering and constructions. Tropical peat differs from temperate peat due to differences in climate and the plant species that decomposed to form […] In Malaysia, peat soil has been identified as one of the major groups of soils with low shear strength and high compressibility. Later, these soils were planted with rubber but the venture was not successful due to badly leaning trees which made the tapping of the trees to extract latex very difficult. Maintenance of correct water levels is also important since hyperacidity seems to occur only during prolonged dry spell. Carbon flow and budget in a young mature oil palm agroecosystem on deep tropical peat. Coupled with the fact that peat soils are not excessively drained when planted with oil palm, the cultivation of such soils have lower CO2 emissions than what is reported currently. Peat, in its natural state, contains excessive amount of water due to its low physiography and water holding capacity of 20 to 30 times its own weight. The irreversible drying of the top layer is prevented by maintaining satisfactory water-level of 50 to 70 cm from surface, and good ground vegetation of light grasses and low density of Nephrolepis biserrata . (2013). The result: dangerous, destructive peat fires that produce greenhouse gases and endangering human life and animal habitats. } Secondly, many tropical peat soils, such as those in Sarawak, have wood fragments in the soil solum. Most of the publications on CO2 emission on drained tropical lowland peat soils have been extrapolated from experiences based on temperate peat. during the early Malaysian reconnaissance soil surveys. On the other hand, potassium is very deficient in peat and hence, high rate of muriate of potash up to 5.0 kg palm-1 yr-1 is recommended (Gurmit et al., 1987). Soil Sci., March 1984 Google Scholar Problem Soils: Managing Deep Peat. In Malaysia, virgin lowland peat areas are often flooded and swampy. This is alleviated by periodic flushing of the drain water, especially during rainstorms, and liming. However, excessive B application must be avoided as it can be phytotoxic and adversely affect the uptake of Cu (Gurmit et al., 1987). wbmaster@mpoc.org.my, HOME Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. However, we must caution that the problems with planting oil palms on deep peat escalated exponentially with the areas of peat, particularly in relation to the amount of good mineral soils in the plantation. Besides, when wood fragments are present, the amount of sapric, hemic or fibric organic soil materials which are decomposable are reduced. callback: callback EPA-420-F-14-061. (2012). Review of emission factors for assessment of CO2 emission from land use change to oil palm in Southeast Asia.  Technical Panel of the 2nd Greenhouse Gas Working Group of RSPO. There occurs a wide variety of tropical wood. This is achieved through a series of stops, weirs and watergates. } This is well known since tropical wood ranges from hard, medium to soft wood. The completed operation leaves a 9.5 to 3 times over them. The completed operation leaves a 9.5 to 11.5 m wide area free of timber and compacted to a depth of 40 to 50 cm (Figure 2). The presence of soft or peaty soil is a major problem in There are 2.4 million hectares of peat in Malaysia, with 1.5 million hectares occurring in Sarawak alone. Malaysia does not use agroecological zones (AEZs) to plan for crop production. However, due to rapid industrialization and population growth, it has become necessary to have infrastructure facilities and road construction everywhere, including in the peat … 7th Floor, Menara Axis, Peatlands cover about 3% of the earth’s land mass; they are found in the temperate (Northern Europe and America) and tropical regions (South East Asia, South America, South Africa and the … In total, Malaysia alone is estimated to have 9 Gt of carbon contained in its peatlands. Consolidation increases the bulk density from 0.11 to 0.20 g cm-3, reduces the incidences of leaning and fallen palms by half and improves FFB yield by 25%. This is done by constructing a perimeter drain, the dimensions of which depend on the size of area to be cleared and distance from a river outlet, using an excavator. Telong, Naman and Bayas) mainly due to the spodic horizon which has an impact on drainage and root proliferation within the 50 cm depth. if (!window.mc4wp) { }); Moreover, blanket spraying may increase the risk of fire and affect the predator-pest balance. When present, it may be in different stages of decomposition (Photos 1-3). Paramananthan,S.(2010). Malaysia will introduce to Indonesia the application of tube wells in peat soil areas to stop the perennial haze problem affecting countries in the region. Aim of this study is to determine physical and mechanical properties of tropical peatland in West Malaysia.   United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has given a higher CO2 emission value of 95 tonnes ha-1year-1 based on the study of Hooijer et al. Catena 118,179-185. Oil palm plantations keep a high water table at 50-70 cm by following RSPO’s Best Management Practices for oil palm cultivation on peatland so as to obtain better yields. Basically, the drainage system consists of a network of field, collection and main drains (Figure 1), the dimensions of which are: The intensity of drains depends on the topography of the field and planting density but the primary objectives is to keep the water levels at 50 to 75 cm from the surface at most times. Peer review of the emission factor for tropical peatlands drained for palm oil cultivation. He said construction of roads on peat soil poses great engineering challenges to Sarawak, as compared to road construction in Peninsular Malaysia where peat soil is almost non-existence. Planting density is also increased to 160 palms ha-1 to attain optimum leaf area index of 6.0 for production by the 10th year on this poor growing medium. Opinions from 5 experts on CO2 emissions in tropical peat drained for oil palm cultivation*, .table-s{border: 1px solid #cccccc;}
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