[11], The mistle thrush is a partial migrant: birds from the north and east of the range wintering in the milder areas of Europe and North Africa. Breeding and Nesting [16], Although the population now appears to be declining, the decrease is not rapid or large enough to trigger conservation vulnerability criteria. Irish word for mistle thrush is Liatráisc. [24] In Finland, the loss of ancient forests is thought to have led to a local decline. The mistle thrush is slightly bigger than the song thrush, which may be a determining factor into their reasoning to winter at home. [11][16] It is often likened to the sound of a football rattle, a form of musical ratchet. Migration may be by day or night, and typically involves individuals or small groups. This was the first record for this species in North America. Our wintering Fieldfares … M & F: 130g. 1842 Near Bandon, shot, 5th December, now at Trinity College, Dublin. There are normally two broods, except in Siberia, where there is only one, the male feeding the fledglings from the first brood while the female sits on the second clutch. [26] The mistle thrush was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae under its current scientific name. Mistle Thrush: Widespread resident throughout the UK and Ireland, scarce on the northern and western isles of Scotland. There are no plumage differences between the sexes. During the autumn, they tend to move out into the countryside looking for berries, but you’ll also see (and hear) them in urban parks, sometimes even in small flocks. Our wintering Fieldfares … [3] Territories are larger in woods than in farmland. Northern races are strongly migratory, with most birds moving… It has greyish-brown upperparts, a long tail and a plump white belly with heavy, dark brown spots. at the top of a tree, singing its fluty song. smooth, glossy pale blue eggs have reddish-brown spots, and are Turdus viscivorus, Order: Breeding occurs at up to 600 m (2,000 ft) in the mountains of North Africa, and occasionally much higher, to 1,700 m (5,600 ft). [11], The eastern subspecies T. v. bonapartei is 30 cm (12 in) in length, and therefore slightly larger than the nominate form. Status: - Blue Tits in Ireland - Coal Passeriformes, Family: [27] The young are dependent on their parents for 15–20 days after fledging. After the young hatch out Name: The accepted subspecies as of 2000 are:[11], An isolated population in Crimea has sometimes been separated as T. v. tauricus, but this is not considered to be a valid form. - Pheasants in Ireland - Puffins [11] Sometimes the same nest is reused for both broods. Mistle Thrush This large thrush breeds from Morocco, Ireland and Norway east to Lake Baikal, western Mongolia and western Nepal. Juveniles are similar to adults, but they have paler upperparts with creamy centres to many of the feathers and smaller spots on the yellowish underparts. There are normally two broods. Redwing are the smallest species of thrush that we have in Ireland and they’re often joined on migration and in feeding flocks by other thrushes. The nest is built by the female, although the male may help. Organisation: EBU - BBC Radio Ulster & BBC Radio Foyle with RSPB NI … It may eat the flowers and shoots of grasses and other plants, and will take fallen apples and plums. Territories are normally reoccupied in subsequent years. 15-16 [11], Adults have a full moult after breeding, beginning between late May and the end of June, and completed by early October. It is a year-round resident in a large part of its range, but northern and eastern populations migrate south for the winter, often in small flocks. [57][58] The song of the mistle thrush is also described in Thomas Hardy's "Darkling Thrush" and Edward Thomas's "The Thrush". [23], Mistle thrushes are found as individuals or pairs for much of the year, although families forage together in late summer,[11] and groups may merge to form large flocks when food sources are plentiful. [17] The mistle thrush is not normally a host of the common cuckoo, a brood parasite. - Great Tits in Ireland - Grey The chicks fledge about 14–16 days after hatching. Country: Northern Ireland. At 26-29cm, the Mistle Thrush is one of the larger thrushes, being slightly larger than a Blackbird and noticeably larger than the Song Thrush. Thrushes build a bulky grass-lined nest consisting of grass, roots, It poses proudly upright with long wings and its tail has pale edges. Nesting: Given its high numbers and very large range, this thrush is therefore classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as being of least concern. The larger, Mistle Thrush-sized Fieldfare has a grey head, a brown back, a grey lower back and a black tail. A key player in the acclaimed “Dawn Chorus”, this attractive speckled thrush is a familiar sight in many Irish gardens, and according to Birdwatch Ireland’s annual Garden Bird Survey features regularly as one of our top 20 garden species. flight the Mistle Thrush usually flies at tree top height with several The southern race T. v. deichleri resembles bonapartei in appearance, but is closer in size to the nominate viscivorus, although it has a more slender bill. The male has a loud, far-carrying so… This is a resident species, and is found all over Ireland throughout the year. Three species were either introduced to Ireland or came to Ireland from another introduced population. In Ireland it was believed that the faeries made sure that the thrush built its nest low down near the fairies home in the grass so that they could enjoy the birds … Click on the flag to view more images from Northern Ireland's Dawn Chorus. In flight, it has long wings and its tail has whitish edges. Oil-Damaged - Waxwings in Ireland - Woodpigeons [3], Desiderius Erasmus's early sixteenth-century collection of Latin proverbs included Turdus malum sibi ipse cacat, (the thrush himself excretes his own trouble), which refers to the use of the sticky mistletoe berries favoured by this species as an ingredient in birdlime, used to trap birds. It is large, aggressive Status in Ireland: Green. In winter, a mistle thrush will vigorously defend mistletoe clumps or a holly tree as a food reserve for when times are hard. Juvenile birds have a partial moult, replacing their head, body, and covert feathers; this is completed by October, although the start of the moult depends on when the chicks hatched. its breast and belly. As well as its larger size, the Mistle Thrush often appears more plump-bellied than its smaller relative and it has a proportionally longer tail. [8] A mitochondrial DNA study identified the mistle thrush's closest relatives as the similarly plumaged song and Chinese thrushes; these three species are early offshoots from the Eurasian lineage of Turdus thrushes after they spread north from Africa. [20] In areas of intensive farming, such as eastern England, arable land has in turn largely been abandoned in favour of built-up areas with their greater variety of green habitats. - Starlings in Ireland - Swallows Flocks of thrushes, probably migrant redwings and fieldfares, along with our local song and mistle thrushes. The celebrity Mistle Thrush chicks watching the busy world go by in Leeds City centre and probably contemplating that 'Leap of Faith', which they successfully achieved around midday on the 27th February. Loud rattle 'prrrrt' when alarmed. mistle thrush is resident throughout Ireland. [24] It expanded rapidly into lowland and coastal areas of Europe during the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century, colonising areas where it was formerly rare or absent, such as Ireland (where it first bred in 1807), Scotland and the Netherlands. and its tail has pale edges. [21], Perhaps the most notable find of the 118th Christmas Bird Count in Canada was a single vagrant mistle thrush found in Miramichi, New Brunswick. [3], In a study carried out in Britain, the survival rate for juveniles in their first year is 57 per cent, and the adult annual survival rate is 62 per cent. When Asian breeders are added, this gives a global total of 12.2–44.4 million. One county record up to the end of 2014. All Categories Destinations Guide ... Blackbirds, Song Thrushes and Mistle Thrushes were all recorded in good numbers during BTO's Garden BirdWatch in 2016, but some species fared poorly. [1] The species was formerly more restricted in range, and rarely bred even in northern England in the 1700s. Both have heavy streaking and spotting on their underparts. Mistle Thrush: Widespread resident throughout the UK and Ireland, scarce on the northern and western isles of Scotland. They are less closely related to other European thrush species such as the blackbird (T. merula) which are descended from ancestors that had colonised the Caribbean islands from Africa and subsequently reached Europe from there. The reasons for this expansion are unclear. [17], The clutch is typically three to five eggs (range two to six), which are usually whitish-buff or greenish-blue and are spotted with red, purple or brown. Between mid-October and November, large numbers cross the Strait of Gibraltar and others pass through Cyprus, but there is hardly any migration across the North Sea. They will often vigorously defend a favoured It is a large thrush with pale grey-brown upper parts, a greyish-white chin and throat, and black spots on its pale yellow and off-white under parts. However, with good views and the right pointers both can be identified with confidence. Where mistletoe is not present, holly is the most common tree chosen. Its legs are yellow-brown in colour. The common chaffinch often nests close to a mistle thrush, the vigilance of the chaffinch and the aggressive behaviour of the thrush benefiting both species. [14] The eggs are incubated for 12–15 days, mainly by the female. Another bird that uses hedges to nest is the wren, one of our most common birds – there are more wrens in Ireland than human beings. It has pale grey-brown upperparts, the chin and throat are greyish-white, and the yellowish-buff breast and off-white belly are marked with round black spots. In the south and east of its range, it inhabits upland coniferous woodland and the range extends above the main tree line where dwarf juniper is present. These are similar to the mistle thrush, but the plain–backed thrush lacks obvious wing bars, is more rufous above than its relative, and is barred rather than spotted below. Birds - hibernianbirds@gmail.com. February to May In the western Himalayas it could be confused with both the plain-backed and the long-tailed thrushes. The male has a loud, far-carrying song which is delivered even in wet and windy weather, earning the bird the old name of stormcock. Rare Birds . The mistle thrush (Turdus viscivorus) is a bird common to much of Europe, temperate Asia and North Africa. Publish date: 18/09/2012. It is a large thrush with pale grey-brown upper parts, a greyish-white chin and throat, and black spots on its pale yellow and off-white under parts. It has pale grey-brown upperparts, the chin and throat are greyish-white, and the yellowish-buff breast and off-white belly are marked with round black spots. [11] Snails are sometimes smashed on a stone "anvil", a technique also used by the song thrush. Mistle Thrushes in Ireland - Mute Swans in Ireland "Holm thrush", "hollin cock" and "holm cock" are based on obsolete names for the holly tree, which may be defended by the thrush in winter for its berries. [11], The male mistle thrush has a loud melodious song with fluted whistles, sounding like chewee-trewuu ... trureetruuruu or similar, repeated three to six times,[11] and used to advertise his territory, attract a mate and maintain the pair bond. early as February. The [29] Although the thrush normally feeds on the ground and from low bushes, the defence of this resource conserves fruit for later in the season when other food items become scarce. "Tha' art as safe as a missel thrush.". Incubation (days): Thrushes are some of Ireland's earliest breeders - laying eggs as The open cup nest is built against a trunk or in a forked branch, and is fearlessly defended against potential predators, sometimes including humans or cats. In The Song Thrush is also less upright when standing. It stands boldly upright and bounds across the ground. White’s Thrush Zoothera dauma Rare vagrant. Breeding Age: Thrush but it is bigger and paler and has bolder spotting on The song is given from a treetop or other elevated position mainly from November to early June. After fledging the young may accompany their parents until the onset of winter. In Since 1975, a total of eight species of Thrush have been ringed in Ireland. [3][11][16] Nests built early in the breeding season may be destroyed by bad weather. It is large, aggressive and relatively powerful. [55][56], The early Renaissance poem "The Harmony of Birds" features a thrusshe (mistle thrush) singing the phrase "sanctus, sanctus", distinguishing the bird from the song thrush, the mauys or throstle. No. winter Mistle Thrushes feed largely on berries such as such as yew, [1][11] In the winter 2017/2018 the first record of a mistle thrush for North America was at Miramichi in New Brunswick. The undersides of the [17] The mistle thrush has been known to kill slowworms and the young of the song thrush, blackbird and dunnock. - Longtailed Tits in Ireland - Magpies [59] The loud call of this common and conspicuous bird also led to many old or local names, including "screech", "shrite" and "gawthrush". The long tail has white tips on the outer feathers, and the underwing coverts are white. The highly nutritious fruits are favoured by the thrush, which digests the flesh leaving the sticky seeds to be excreted, possibly in a suitable location for germination. shell makes up 6% of that weight. Song and Mistle Thrush are two garden species that are readily confused; both are grey brown in appearance; both have a spotted breast and pale legs. The mistle thrush is is a pale, black-spotted thrush - large, aggressive and powerful. It poses proudly upright with long wings Not me," he said. The range also increased in Denmark, Norway, Hungary and Austria. [29], As its name implies, the mistle thrush is important in propagating the mistletoe, an aerial parasite, which needs its seeds to be deposited on the branches of suitable trees. [18] There is also a squeaky tuk contact call. Call: [42] The eggs and chicks may be targeted by cats and corvids. Breeds in open woodland or other places with tall trees for nesting and short grass for foraging. Blackbirds, hedge sparrows, pied wagtails and tits, blue, coal, and great. 27cm Wingspan: 45cm Weight: [44][45][46] Internally, they can suffer from parasites including tapeworm,[47][48] nematodes,[49][50] and Syngamus merulae (a species of Gapeworm). It is a year-round resident in a large part of its range, but northern and eastern populations migrate south for the winter, often in small flocks. female incubates the eggs by herself. [62], In Frances Hodgson Burnett's The Secret Garden, Dickon reassures Mary Lennox that he will keep his knowledge of the garden secret by comparing her to a mistle thrush in defence of its nest, recognising his privilege in sharing her secret: "If tha' was a missel thrush an' showed me where thy nest was, does tha' think I'd tell any one? [43], External parasites of the mistle thrush include the hen flea, the moorhen flea, the castor bean tick and the brightly coloured harvest mite. The fieldfare, the larger of the two visitors, is about the size of our resident mistle thrush and is appropriately named ‘sacán’ in Irish – the frost bird. The largest thrush species in the UK, the mistle thrush measures around 28cm in length. Song is like that of the [51] Blood parasites can include Trypanosoma and Plasmodium species. From 1 year [12][13], The mistle thrush is the largest thrush native to Europe. Herons in Ireland - Jackdaws in Ireland bush it happens across against any other encroaching birds. Seabirds; Countryside & Wetland birds; Research & Surveys. In these warmer southern areas, it tends to be found in the milder uplands and coastal regions. [11] The chicks are altricial and downy,[14] and are fed by both parents. Sometimes, as in this nest, the bird may incorporate bits of string or twine. The long-tailed thrush has olive-toned upperparts, bars on its breast and two wing bars. The mistle thrush is a pale, black-spotted thrush. [52][53], The mistle thrush has an extensive distribution in Europe and western Asia, and its European breeding population is estimated at 9–22.2 million birds. [14] It weighs 93 to 167 g (3.3 to 5.9 oz),[3] with an average of around 130 g (4.6 oz). The nest site may be up to 20 m (66 ft) above the ground, although 2–9 m (6.6–29.5 ft) is more typical. Redwings are a little like Song Thrushes but show a striking creamy white supercilium over the eye and a splash of orange-red on the flanks. The flight consists of undulating bounds interspersed with glides. It is paler grey above and whiter below, with fewer black spots. By their first winter they are very similar to adults, but the underparts are usually more buff-toned. Juvenile mistle thrushes are superficially similar to White's thrush, but that species has golden-yellow plumage, scalloped underparts and a distinctive underwing pattern. [14] It has a stocky upright posture when on the ground. in Ireland - Song Thrushes in Ireland This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ireland.The avifauna of Ireland included a total of 485 species as of the end of 2019 according to the Irish Rare Birds Committee (IRBC). and relatively powerful. 2 (occasionally 3) approximately 30mm X 22mm in size. The southern form T. v. deichleri is resident in North Africa, Corsica and Sardinia. blackbird but less melodic. The birds usually start to arrive from late September / early October, and stay until early March… with some lingering a little later. Number of Eggs: Mistle thrushes are widespread in the UK, but as they prefer areas with big trees and short grass during the breeding season, they’re less likely than song thrushes to nest in small gardens. In the winter months, these birds will stay in Britain where pairs and family groups will set up a territory around a fruiting berry tree. It They fledge about 14–16 days after hatching. Throughout the year, Britain has three common species of thrush, the Blackbird, the Mistle Thrush ans the Song Thrush. The thrush's nest is a large cup of sticks, dry grass, roots and moss, coated on the inside with a layer of mud and lined with fine grass and leaves. The Life expectancy is typically three years,[14] but the maximum age recorded from bird ringing recoveries is 21 years and 3 months for a bird shot in Switzerland. [2][3] Turdus is the Latin for "thrush", and viscivorus, "mistletoe eater", comes from viscum "mistletoe" and vorare, "to devour". [11], The mistle thrush is much larger, paler and longer-tailed than the sympatric song thrush. 4 The most notable one is the Fieldfare – another thrush species that only occurs here in winter. rowan, hawthorn and holly. Adult survival, clutch size and fledging success are all lower in arable landscapes than in areas with extensive pasture. (Thompson I:128) This is the first Irish Record. The final verse of the Jethro Tull song "Jack-in-the-Green" from their album Songs from the Wood mentions the bird in the lines "Oh, the mistlethrush is coming. Parent birds exhibit fearlessness in defence of their nests, occasionally even attacking humans. Mistle Thrushes in Ireland. The eyes are dark brown and the bill is blackish with a yellowish base to the lower mandible. It forages within its breeding habitat and in open fields, sometimes sharing these feeding areas with redwings or fieldfares. Winter thrush survey. [16] The average size of the egg is 30 mm × 22 mm (1.18 in × 0.87 in), and weighs 7.8 g (0.28 oz), of which 6% is shell. The spotting becomes denser on the lower chest, giving the appearance of a breast-band. Adults will roam up to 1 km (approximately 1,100 yards) from the nest on pasture or ploughed land. [24] The male will attack intruders into its breeding area, including birds of prey and corvids,[11] and sometimes cats or humans. [11], Mistle thrushes breed in the year subsequent to their hatching;[14] they are monogamous and stay as a pair throughout the year in areas where they are not migratory. There was a range expansion in the 18th and early 19th centuries, and a small decline in recent decades, perhaps due to changes in agricultural practices. The clutch, typically of three to five eggs, is incubated for 12–15 days, mainly by the female. [63], A bird in the family Turdidae from Europe, Asia and North Africa, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, International Union for Conservation of Nature, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22708829A87878799.en, "Continuous 300,000-year fossil record: changes in the ornithofauna of Biśnik Cave, Poland", "Surviving on berries, celebrity mistle thrush settles in for Miramichi winter", "118th Christmas Bird Count: Canada Summary", "Population dynamics and social behavior of the Mistle Thrush, "Zur Siedlungsbiologie und Ökologie des Uhus (, "Won't Want for Love (Margaret in the Taiga) The Decemberists", Ageing and sexing (PDF; 4.3 MB) by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mistle_thrush&oldid=992055399, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 06:45. Male and Females are alike with warm brown upper parts, pale buff underparts with dark speckles and a tinge of golden brown on the breast. Breeding typically commences in mid-March in the south and west of Europe (late February in Britain), but not till early May in Finland. [24] It is not uncommon for up to 50 thrushes to feed together at that time of year. Given its high numbers and very large range, this thrush is classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as being of least concern. [11], Plant food includes the fruits and seeds of bushes and trees, mainly holly, yew, ivy and mistletoe, but also, for example, blackberry, cherry, elder, hawthorn, olive and rose. of Clutches: Mistle The song thrush is one of Ireland's top 20 most widespread garden birds. The most notable one is the Fieldfare – another thrush species that only occurs here in winter. It is quite likely to be observed high at the top of a tree, singing its fluty song. [17] Courtship feeding of the female by her partner has sometimes been observed. The bird also features in the lyrics of The Decemberists' song "Won't Want For Love (Margaret In The Taiga)" from their 2009 album The Hazards of Love: "Mistlethrush, Mistlethrush, Lay me down in the underbrush, My naked feet grow weary with the dusk". Animal prey include earthworms, insects and other arthropods, slugs and snails. Tits in Ireland - Goldfinches in Ireland Stormcock, released in 1971, is the fifth album by English folk/rock singer-songwriter and guitarist Roy Harper. The nominate subspecies measures 27–28 cm (11–11 in) in length,[11] with a 45 cm (18 in) wingspan. In this, the latest identification video from the BTO, we offer tips on how to confidently separate these engaging thrushes. [6][54], Mistle Thrush and Alpine Chough, by Giovanni da Udine, an artist who worked in Raphael's studio in the 16th century, was a sketch for his Bird with Garland and Fruit, and this in turn was the basis for a Raphael fresco in the Apostolic Palace. In milder winters with an abundance of fruit, however, this strategy is less used and thrushes can be observed foraging in flocks. Turdidae, Irish in Ireland - Wrens in Ireland, Irish Birds of intermediate appearance are seen west of the Ob River where the range overlaps with viscivorus. in the fork of a tree but it will also use shrubs and holes in walls. The [11], The mistle thrush is quite terrestrial, hopping with its head held up and body erect; when excited, it will flick its wings and tail. The song is, however, much louder, often audible up to 2 km (2,000 yd) away. Not to be confused with: the song thrush, which … Jack, put out the light." After breeding it may join nomadic flocks searching the moorland and countryside for food. The mistle thrush is an exception and will sing at all times of day, whatever the weather. Each egg weighs 7.8g of which It is smaller than it's relatives the Mistle Thrush or the Blackbird. [11] In the highlands of Europe, its preferred altitude is from 800–1,800 m (2,600–5,900 ft). Scandinavian and Russian birds start moving south from mid-September onwards, most birds wintering in Europe, western Turkey and the Middle East. They tend to nest quite deep down, building a ball of a nest tucked away in the vegetation. Breeding birds in the British Isles and north-west Europe are resident or move only short distances. Almost all mistle thrushes are sedentary; a tiny amount of ringed birds have made it to Ireland or France, but only when we have suffered a … [1] The perceived decline may be due to the loss of invertebrate-rich pastures and mixed farms through conversion to arable agriculture or more intensively managed grassland. [19], The mistle thrush is found in a wide range of habitats containing trees, including forests, plantations, hedges and town parks. Equipment. [16] The nest is usually built in a tree in the fork of a branch or against the trunk, although hedges, ledges on buildings and cliff faces may also be used. Redwing are the smallest species of thrush that we have in Ireland and they’re often joined on migration and in feeding flocks by other thrushes. Our Work – Species & Habitat Conservation. [25] Their territories are much larger than those of blackbirds or song thrushes;[11] although the nest territory is only about 0.6 hectares (1.5 acres), around 15–17 ha (37–42 acres) is used for feeding. Diet: [24] Individuals or pairs will defend one or more fruit-bearing trees throughout the winter, with preference shown for trees which host mistletoe, the parasitic plant from which the bird derives its name. The mistle thrush (Turdus viscivorus) is a bird common to much of Europe, temperate Asia and North Africa. [11] Mistle thrush fossils have been found in Pleistocene deposits from Poland and Sicily. It is thought that they get their name from a (but rarely snails). Of them, 183 are rare, and 14 of the rarities have not been seen in Ireland since 1950. wing beats interspersed with short glides. It is most likely to be noticed perched high at the top of a tree, singing its fluty song or giving its rattling call in flight. [15] The tone resembles that of the song thrush or blackbird, but compared to its relatives the mistle thrush's repertoire is less varied and the delivery is slower. Described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae under its current scientific name -,! Are similar in size longer-tailed than the song thrush is the Fieldfare – thrush! Ireland 's Dawn Chorus the mistle thrush has been known to kill slowworms and the young hatch out they very! 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Is slightly bigger than the song is like that of the Week Travel lower arable. Rarely snails ) where the range also increased in Denmark, Norway, and! Altitude is from 800–1,800 m ( 2,600–5,900 ft ) berries in autumn and winter exception... Breeding habitat and in Asia east to the end of 2014,,... Coniferous taiga, mainly by the female Sigma 150-600mm F5-6.3 Contemporary the mistle fossils. Shrubs and holes in walls white belly with heavy, dark brown spots this species in North.. Most widespread garden birds and Siberia be destroyed by bad weather highlands of Europe, temperate Asia and Siberia views! Upright posture when on the northern and western isles of Scotland Himalayas it could be with...